Head - Dr. Sc. (Geology and Mineralogy) M.S. Kovalchuk
Scientific Secretary - Cand. Sc. (Geology) L.A. Figura
11 scientists are employees of the Depapartment including two Dr. Sc. and three Cand. Sc. (Geology and Mineralogy).
Scientific work is doing in two directions: study of biological and mineral resources of the World Ocean and investigations of ore presence in the sedimentary formations of Ukraine.
V.Kh. Gevork’yan, Yu. G. Chugunny and other scientists of the Department recognized that the superimposed processes, matter balance and bios development were phenomena of one common process in the system Ocean – Atmosphere – Earth Crust, and flows of deep-originated matter were of leading importance in the appearance of bioproductive zones in the abyssal part of the World Ocean. It enabled, with the aim to use biological and mineral resources of the World Ocean, to substantiate theoretically search and recovery operations in the open ocean off 200-mile economic zone.
As for today, V.Kh. Gevork’yan, Yu. G. Chugunny and others developed the concept of influence of deep-originated matter over genesis of ore-forming components on the submarine mountains and uplifts of the World Ocean, in part in off-rift zones. Besides, the main zonation principles were recognized f or iron-manganese concretions in the Northern Atlantic Ocean.
From the new positions, using new data of marine geological expeditions, some scientific conceptions of V.I. Vernadsky revival, in part the biogeochemical theory of ore accumulation due to the bios activity. The carried out analysis of carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere and hydrosphere testified to the Vernadsky’s idea about relatively stable climatic conditions of the Earth that change insignificantly due to “gas breathing” of the planet and do not linked with anthropogenic activity. The investigation of forms of placer fields in the sedimentary sequences of Ukraine is continued.
V .Kh. Gevork’yan, O.M. Sokur and others study the conditions of genesis and distribution of gas hydrate accumulations in the sedimentary sequence of the Black Sea. It is proved that the hydrocarbon degassing of the earth crust is closely connected to forming hydrocarbon accumulations in the shape of gas hydrate deposits. Using submarine vehicles, the “smokers” have been investigated for the first time in the Black Sea. They are sources of the abyssal methane, a decomposition product of gas hydrate accumulations. The data have been obtained about the presence of gas hydrates in the shallow part of the Black Sea. The results of work enabled to outline the polygon for detailed experimental researches and site for a search-prospecting borehole for hydrocarbons.
M.S. Kovalchuk, G.S. Kompanets and others recognized the spatial, temporal, formational, lithofacial and facial distribution of gold and copper in the sedimentary formational units and forms of their occurrence. The features of mobilization, dissipation and concentration of those elements and their satellites were investigated for the hypergenesis zone and sedimentogenesis processes of continental, transitional and marine formations. The role of lithogenesis processes in gold and copper localization in various genetic types of sediments was determined. It enabled to specify the facial nature of gold- and copper-bearing formations, paleotectonic, paleoclimatic and other peculiarities of the formation regime of ore-bearing formational units, to develop geological-genetic models of gold, copper and silver concentration for different in age and genesis sedimentary sequences of Ukraine which adequately reflect the multistep concentration process of these metals in the process of forming and functioning of formational unit, to give a forecast assessment of the ore-bearing potential of the sedimentary cover of Ukraine on the metals metioned, to suggest top-priority areas for detail search works.
M.S. Kovalchuk developed the morphogenetic and granulometric classification of gold from the sedimentary sequences of Ukraine, recognized some new and unusual in morphology and chemical composition emanations of gold, the specific form of alluvial gold placers originated under conditions of the disturbed dividing of clastic material, factors which influenced this process and mobilization of gold in the formational units of Ukraine.
As for today, M.S. Kovalchuk, G.S. Kompanets and others investigate the way of lithogenesis evolution of sedimentary sequences of the Dniester Pericratonal Trough during the Vendian and Early Paleozoic. The results will enable to give the general scene of the structure and development of individual tectonic structures and the whole Dniester Pericratonal Trough, to trace the stages of of lithogenesis in the Dniester Pericratonal Trough in context of geological development, to elucidate the relations between economic minerals and some facies, lithofacies and postdiagenetic transformations of sedimentary and sedimentary-volcanic sequences, to delop search criteria and ouline promising formational-stratigraphiclevels and areas for search works, to improve the theory of lithogenesis in the passive platform outskirts.
Kovalchuk M.S., Kompanets G.S., Figura L.A., Sokur T.M., Shestakov O.Yu., Kroshko Yu. V., Moroz.L.I., Usminska A.V. work out the material for creating of the Litologic codex of Ukraine.
The Department develops such scientific directions as applied gold mineralogy, geology of gold placers, sedimentary-lithogenetic mineralogy and geochemistry of gold and copper.