Institute of Geological Sciences (IGS) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine is the oldest geological institution in Ukraine, the theoretical center of geological science in the country, the founder of scientific institutions of the geological profile that belong to the Department of Earth Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Institute derived from the Ukrainian Research Geological Institute of the People's Commissariat of Education SSR, founded in 1926 in Kiev, on the basis of geological institutions that existed in the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR and Narcompros (People’s Commissariat of Education) of the UkrSSR.
The founder and first director of the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Geological Institute was academician P.A. Tutkovsky. The main tasks of the Institute were the following studies: a) the Quaternary deposits of Ukraine and the identification of minerals and building materials; b) Tertiary and Quaternary fauna and flora; c) petrography and mineralogy of the Ukrainian shield and d) underground waters.
In 1927 the National Geological Museum of the UkrSSR organised, headed by Acad. UkrSSR Academy of Sciences P.A. Tutkovsky. In 1930 the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Geological Institute was transferred to the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR, and since 1934, after merging with the Museum, the Institution has got the name the Institute of Geology of the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR.
In 30-40s of the Institute was working on the expansion of mineral resource base and a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Ukraine, the problems of Polissya and the Lower Dnipro River (L.G. Tkachuk), the studies of polymetallic ores and cupreous sandstones of Donbas (M.G. Svitalsky, T.Yu. Lapchyk, I.L. Lychak, Yu.Yu. Yurk), manganese ore of the Nikopol area (I.A. Lepikash), the Carboniferous of Donbas (K.Yo. Novyk), and since 1935 – the studies of the oil and gas content of the Dnipro-Donets Depression have started (F.O. Lysenko, I.T. Shameka, O.M. Kutsyba). At the same time there continue the biostratigraphical studies initiated by P.A. Tutkovsky (N.V. Pimenov, A.K. Kaptarenko-Chernousova, K.Yo. Novyk), the studies of the Quaternary Geology (V.G. Bondarchuk, D.K. Bilenko, P.K. Zamoriy, V.I. Krokos, I.A. Lepikash, G.I. Molyavko) and the geology of the Ukrainian shield (M.G. Svitalsky, N.I. Bezborodko, L.G. Tkachuk). Since 1934 the Institute is the only institution of the Academy of Sciences, which developed the problems of hydrogeological science (K.I. Makov, Ye.S. Burkser, V.I. Luchytsky, A.E. Babynets, S.Z. Saydakovsky, I.E. Slenzak etc.).
Its куіуте name of the Institute has since August 8, 1938.
After the World War II the Institute becama an Interdepartmental Geological Coordination Center that favoured recovery and development of the State Geological Survey of Ukraine. There are continuing the study of geology of the Ukrainian Shield and its minerals (M.P. Semenenko), oil and gas content of the UkrSSR territory (V.G. Bondarchuk, M.P. Baluhovskyy, V.N. Holovtsyn), coal-bearing regions (K.Yo. Novyk, P.L. Shulga), groundwaters of Ukraine (K.I. Makov, A.E. Babynets), ore minerals (M.P. Semenenko, V.G. Bondarchuk, Ye.S. Burkser, Ya.M. Byelyevtsev). One of the tasks was to study the commercial coal content of the Lower Carboniferous in the western part of the Great Donbas (D.Ye. Ayzenverg, J.E. Brazhnikova, K.Yo. Novyk), prospecting of the Lviv-Volyn Basin was completed (P.L. Shulga, A.M. Ishchenko), the Shebelinka deposit of natural gas was discovered (M.P. Balukhovsky), the geological-coal-chemical map of the Donbas was complied (V.S. Popov). In 1950-1953 the Institute participated in the study and the scientific stipulation of the hydrotechnical constructions at the south of Ukraine (A.Ye. Babynets, O.O. Falovsky). Great achievements were the identifying of the prospects of deeply occured horizons in the Kryvy Rih iron ore basin (M.P. Semenenko, Ya.M. Byelyevtsev), assessment of groundwater resources of the main geological regions of Ukraine (A.Ye. Babynets, V.M. Shestopalov), opening of the first major placer deposits (M.G. Dyachenko, M.F. Veklych).
The Institute’s background is associated with the activities of the outstanding scientists-geologists: P.A. Tutkovsky, A.E. Babynets, M.P. Balukhovsky, M.I. Bezborodko, Y.M. Byelyevtsev, D.C. Bilenko, V.G. Bondarchuk, P.P. Budnikov, Ye.S. Burkser, A.A. Dubyansky, P.K. Zamoriy, V.I. Krokos, M.M. Klyushnikova, V.I. Luchytsky, K.I. Makov, G.I. Molyavko, N.V. Pimenov, V.B. Porfyryev, P.P. Pyatnytsky, V.V. Riznychenko, S.P. Rodionov, M.G. Svitalsky, V.A. Selsky, M.P. Semenenko, O.N. Sokolovsky, B.I. Chernyshov, V.M. Chyrvinsky, Yu.Yu. Yurk. The Institute played a significant role in the development of new scientific areas of geological research and training of scientific personnel. On the basis of its departments and laboratories were set up independent scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals (Lviv, 1951); the S.I. Subbotin Institute of Geophysics (Kyiv, 1961); Institute of Geochemistry and Physics of Minerals (Kyiv, 1969); Department of Marine Geology and Sedimentary Ore Formation (Kyiv, 1992); Ukrainian Institute of Speleogenesis and Karstology (Simferopol, 2006).
Institute of Geological Sciences was headed by P.A. Tutkovsky (1926-1930), V.V. Riznychenko (1930-1932), I.L. Lepikash (1933-1934), M.G. Svitalsky (1934-1937), K.A. Boyko (1937-1938), Ye.S. Burkser (1938-1939), B.I. Chernyshov (1939-1946), V.I. Luchytsky (1946-1949), A.Ye. Babynets (1949-1953), V.G. Bondarchuk (1953-1963), V.B. Porfyryev (1963-1968), V.S. Popov (1968-1969), Y.M. Byelyevtsev (1969), E.K. Lazarenko (1969-1971), V.Ya. Didkovsky (1971-1977), E.F. Shnyukov (1977-1992), P.F. Shpak (1992-1996), since 1997 director of the Institute – P.F. Gozhyk.
Scientific and scientific-organizational activities carried out in the following areas of research: complex problems of Geological Sciences; the problems of oceans; scientific basis of preserving and improving the environment and natural resources. The total number of employees of the Institute is 325, including 146 – scientific workers, among them 69 doctors and 53 candidates. There are three academicians of NAS of Ukraine – I.I. Chebanenko, V.M. Shestopalov, P.F. Gozhyk and six Corresponding members of the NAS of Ukraine – O.Yu. Mytropolsky, V.M. Semenenko, O.O. Lukin, V.I. Lyalko, M.A. Yakymchuk, O.V. Fedorovsky.
The Institute includes: Center of the Aerospace Research of the Earth (headed by Corresponding member of NAS of Ukraine V.I. Lyalko); Scientific and Technological Center of the fuel and energy resources of NAS of Ukraine and "Naftogaz of Ukraine" (oil and gas) (B.L. Krupsky); Center of management and marketing in the of Earth Sciences (Corresponding member of NAS of Ukraine M.A. Yakymchuk); Scientific Council "Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology" (Academician of NAS of Ukraine V.M. Shestopalov); four specialized comissions on the doctoral and candidate theses. There are valid postgraduate and doctoral studies, where specialists in different fields of geological sciences are prepared.
Institute is the basic institution of the Ukrainian Paleontological Society, Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee of Ukraine. It has the one of the biggest geological libraries in Ukraine, which includes over 200 thousand books and magazines.
The Institute incorporates 16 scientific departments, which combined by sleciality into five divisions (general geology, lithology, paleontology and stratigraphy, fuel and energy complex, marine and oceanic geology, hydrogeology and engineering geology).
During its existence the Institute scientists have made a significant contribution to the understanding of the geological structure of the territory of Ukraine. There were developed the theoretical foundations of knowledge, structure and development of the crust, the development of the organic world, paleogeography, patterns of sedimentation and location of mineral deposits. Much progress has been achieved in the study of geology of the bottom of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and oceans, and in solving the most important economic problems of the Great Donbas, Kryvy Rih, problems of mineral complex of Ukraine (fuel and power, water resources, mineral deposits).
The scientists of the Institute under the leadership of Academicians of NAS of Ukraine V.G. Bondarchuk (1953-1977) and I.I. Chebanenko (1977) made significant progress in theoretical and practical general geology and geotectonics. The main achievements are: new geological theory tectoorogeny was created, the idea of global faults of the Earth's lithosphere and the presence of regular general planetary grid faults, the hypothesis of the vortex structure of the crust. Lithostratigraphic, lithofacial and paleogeographic investigations are in progress. The models litho-geochemical models of the most perspective sedimentary formational complexes are working out. There are examined the processes of sedymentary diacatagenesis as a basis for forecasting of stratiformal mineralization of non-ferrous metal, ore and non-ore minerals.
Important fundamental research, in which the Institute has been and remains a leading, is paleontology and stratigraphy. Department of paleontology and stratigraphy is the most multydisciplinary center in Ukraine, employing experts in all areas. Since the time of P.A. Tutkovsky and nowadays, investigation of evolution of life, examination and monographic description of groups of fossil fauna – Phanerozoic foraminifers, ammonoides, sponges, corals, gastropods, bivalve molluscs and cephalopods, chitinozoans, trilobites, conodonts, ostracods, bryozoans, brachiopods, graptolites, radiolarians, using the traditional and new techniques (biogeochemistry, electronic microscopy, statistical methods, heuristic modeling, etc.); study of the evolution of the organic world (Paleozoic - Quaternary) and its connection to the geological events, problems of the theory of florogenesis, stratigraphy of marine and terrestial formations, paleolandscape, paleoecological and paleogeographical reconstructions.
There were elaborated the regional stratigraphic schemes of the late Precambrian and Phanerozoic of Ukraine, detailed stratigraphic schemes of the systems and regions of Ukraine to develop a stratigraphic basis for geological mapping. The concept of evolution of the Phanerozoic paleoekosystems of different orders, the theoretical basis for the construction of the Phanerozoic scale of geological time, based on the geohistorical stages and events were worked out (D.E. Ayzenverh, S.V. Horak, V.Ya. Didkovsky, O.K. Kaptarenko-Chernousova, K.Yo. Novyk, P.L. Shulga, I.M. Yamnychenko, P.F. Gozhyk, M.V. Vdovenko, M.L. Voronova, B.F. Zernetsky, V.Yu. Zosymovych, M.M. Ivanik, V.V. Kiryanov, Ye.Ya. Krayeva, S.A. Lyulyeva, N.V. Maslun, D.Ye. Makarenko, L.F. Plotnikova, V.I. Poletayev, V.M. Semenenko, S.V. Syabryay, Yu.V. Teslenko, P.D. Tsehelnyuk, T.I. Nemyrovska, O.K. Shchogolev).
Traditionally the Institute conducts the fundamental researches in geology of oil, gas and coal deposits, which play an important role in the development of fuel and energy complex of Ukraine. Scientific foundation for fuel minerals resources forecast, modern methods of prospecting and exploration, geological foundations of rational exploitation are working out. There are carried out the analysis of geological and paleostructural-geological structure of oil and gas and coal-bearing formations, the study of deep structures and faults, sedimentation cyclicity and geotectonic development, lithogenetic, structural, paleostructural features and material composition of oil and gas and coal-bearing systems, and regularities of formation and distribution of deposits of combustible minerals; study of oil and gas genesis, regularities of changes of their phases, geological and economic evaluation of reserves and resources of oil, gas and coal, and the study of geology and oil and gas sedimentary sedimentary basins of the world. Equally important is the discovery of spatial periodicity in the location of such structural elements of the Dnipro-Donets Depression, as bars, local rises, salt stocks, rupture dislocations, is of great importance. Hydrocarbon accumulation is supposed to be connected with the nodes of the geodynamic net (P.F. Shpak, V.K. Tavryt).
Under the leadership of Acad. V.B. Porfyryev there was developed the theory of abiogenic synthesis of oil and natural gas at great depths. On the basis of this theory the prospecting of oil and gas in the Luhansk, Sumy, and Kharkiv regions was resulted in the discovery of 25 deposits (V.V. Porfyryev, V.A. Krayushkin).
Oil and gas potential of the Black and Azov seas was scientifically substantiated and determined as a source of own oil and gas output increasing in Ukraine. The models of prognosis maps, scale 1:200,000, and perspective objects for prospecting of oil and gas deposits were constructed for the Dnipro-Donets Depression. There was recorded that the deep seated hydrogenic “scavening” of sedimentary basins and formation of hydrocarbon in the oil and gas bearing basins underwent a number of phases and took place not at the same time.
A State program and the concept of oil and gas potential of Ukraine were worked out, and new methods of oil output were introduced. The project of medium term and long term (to 2010) projections of economic and social development of oil and gas industry is in a progress (P.F. Shpak).
Priority is given to the structural-formational and structural-facial investigation of coal basins and deposits at different levels of structure and material composition. Solution of the problems of sudden releases and explosions in coal mines gained new perspectives due to the proposed conception of generation and concentration of metastable highly explosive natural acetylene in coal. The study of petrographic and chemical composition of coal promoted a set up of the classification of its microcomponents and substantination of mineral basis of mineral wax (A.Ya. Radzivill, V.F. Shulga).
The Institute was the first in Ukraine center of geological study of the oceans. Since 1962, specialists of the Institute began participating in maritime expeditions (V.Ya. Didkovsky, Ye.F. Shnyukov, B.F. Zernetsky, M.M. Ivanik, V.N. Semenenko, V.I. Melnyk, B.Kh. Gevorkyan, O.Yu. Mytropolsky, P.F. Gozhyk etc.). Five new research areas were iniciated: marine hydrogeology and marine engineering geology (A.Ye. Babynets, O.Yu. Mytropolsky, V.O. Yemelyanov); marine sedimentary ore formation (Ye.F. Shnyukov); submarine geology (V.Kh. Geovorkyan); marine geoecology (Ye.F. Shnyukov, V.Kh. Gevorgyan, O.Yu. Mytropolsky, V.O. Emelianov); deep-seated fluids and their role in the formation of mineral deposits and bioproductive zones (V.Kh. Gevorgyan, Yu.G. Chuhunny). Geological features of the Azov-Black Sea region and parts of the Indian, Atlantic and South Oceans were examined. The dynamics of coastal processes of the northwestern part of the Black Sea were studied. As a result of the long term observations the forecast of erosion and accumulation of sediments in the coastal zone was developed (P.F. Gozhyk). The maps of submarine valleys and canyons in the Black Sea, scale 1:500000, were compiled, which is the first detailed evidence of generalization of these unique forms of underwater terrain (V.I. Melnik). Sedimentation regularities and facial and structure of the Black Sea estuaries and gulfa were studied (P.F. Gozhyk, V.P. Usenko). The computer digital geological and geochemical maps of the Black and Azov Seas were compiled (O.Yu. Mytropolsky, S.P. Olshtynsky).
The features of geochemical barriers formation in aquatic systems were typified. Landscape-geochemical model of the Atlantic Guinea sector was proposed, Atlas of geological and geophysical maps of the shelf of the Guinea Republic was developed.
Lithological criteria of prospecting of bioproducting zones in the open ocean were determined, classification of the types of underflow matter was worked out, regularities of ore complexes distribution depending on seamounts and uplifts and nature of volcanogenic-tectonic activity were determined. There was developed and tested the method of using satellite altimetry data to study the seabed morphology and the identification of the key regions to search for hydrocarbons.
The Institute played an important role in the initiation of the research in Antarctic and the development of the State research program. The series of the Antarctic expeditions carried out the comprehensive oceanographic research, in particular the examination of the lithosphere structure, material composition and facial structure of sedimentary cover, geodynamic processes and evolution of sedimentation (P.F. Gozhyk, R.Kh. Greku).
Since the foundation of the Institute of Geological Sciences of Ukraine the hydrogeological and engineering geological investigations played one of the leading roles in its activities. The recent studies are characterized by an ecological direction as well as by wide introduction of new mathematical and physical-chemical methods. The Department of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of the Institute is the greatest multydisciplinary scientific center of hydrogeological science in Ukraine. For many years it was headed by A.E. Babynets, who stimulated the impetuous development of hydrogeological works, i.e. the hydrogeological science in the 50-70s in Ukraine. Now the principal trends in activity of this branch under the supervision of Acad. V.M. Shestopalov are as follow:
- Hydrogeological problems: the study of water exchange and groundwater resources in geological structures; investigation of mineral waters; study of migration various pollutants (radionuclides, pesticides, etc.) in the underground hydrosphere; creation of regional and local models of multilayer hydrogeologic structures by the mathematical software; mapping of the hydrogeological parameters of aquifers; assessment of natural and operational underground water horizons; developing of recommendations for rational use and protection of water; modelling of the migration processes and prediction of pollutants behavior in multilayered hydrogeological system; recommendations for rational use and protection of waters; modeling of migration processes and prognosis of contaminants behavior in multilayer hydrogeological system; development of equipment for rapid determination of physical properties (density, moisture, salinity) of rocks; working out of recommendations on groundwater protection in areas of large fuel energy sectors, as well as for artificial recharge of groundwater: the study of karst cavities for their economic and tourist utilization (V.M. Shestopalov, A.Щю Suhorebry, V.V. Gudzenko, Yг.F. Rudenko, N.P. Moiseyevа, I.P. Onishchenko et al.).
After the Chernobyl catastrophe the scientists started to work on the problems of liquidation of the consequences of the catastrophe. Shortly after the accident accident specialists of the Institute (V.M. Shestopalov, A.B. Sytnikov, V.V. Gudzenko et al.) prepared a proposal for the use of groundwater for water supply, to protect the Pripyat River from radioactively polluted water, the first predictions were done of the radionuclide migration in groundwater.
In the years after the disaster there were developed the scientifically based and partially implemented recomendations for monitoring of groundwater of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Kyiv agglomeration, examined the ways of rapid migration of radionuclides in geological environment, studied the factors of delay of radionuclides during the migration.
- Technogenic hydrogeology: detecting of patterns and scientific substantination for improving the water-salt regime of soils; development of new technology, i.e. validation of principles of operation, design features and production of special prototype devices; development of construction methods and technologies for organization of field test sites for moisture – salt transfer study within the “groundwater – aeration zone – plant – ground air” system; elaboration of methodology of hydrogeological monitoring of the areas which suffered from radioactive contamination and unfavorable geological processes (A.B. Sytnikov).
- Groundwater protection: designing of permanent hydrogeological models included as an integral part into the automated system of groundwater regime control; revealing of the regularities of groundwater formation depending on geological and hydrogeological conditions and ainfluence of technogenic factors; research on natural processes of migration of pollutants in soils of aeration zone, aquifers and aquitards at the natural test sites; zonation of the areas according to the conditions of antropogenic groundwater pollution; planning of the field tests and observations, based on monitoring (M.S. Ognyanyk, A.Ya. Briks, S.A. Gavlovsky).
- Engineering geology: the study of composition and properties of the loess cover; determination of regularities in regional differences of subsidence properties of rocks, which are in the construction of main canals and irrigation systems of southern Ukraine; examination of engineering geological properties of the alluvial deposits of sluggish rivers of Ukraine as the basis for waterworks; engineering-geological zoning and monitoring of exogenous processes in connection with the construction of pipeline transportation facilities; working out of recommendations concerning optimization of the structure of the economic complex, rational use of geological environment, and conservation of natural resources during construction, development of mineral resources; engineering-geological study of the plans of development of the populated areas, resort zones, industrial development of lands. There were recognized the relationship between the hydrocarbon of ore deposits and deep fault zones, and substantinated its use as a prospecting sign; the hypothesis was worked out about the existence of abiogenic deposits of oil and gas side by side with the biogenic ones; there was elaborated a rational complex of improved methods of studying of the newest tectonics.
For the first time the Riphean geological structure of the Precambrian basement of Ukraine were classified by the diastrophic cycles (V.A. Ryabenko). Multifactor model of the crust evolution at the basis of self-organization and synergetics of geological processes and the determination of productive ore forming systems was constructed. The new geological phenomena – transparent transregional megazonez of activation that were formed from the late Archean to the present stage and played a leading role in ore formation – were investigated (L.S. Galetsky, T.P. Shevchenko). Classification of rare metal and gold formations of Ukraine was constructed and prospecting signs and criteria of their prediction were determined. The new morphogenetic types of gold were determined, and the database of gold-bearing sedimentary strata of Ukraine was created (L.S. Galetsky, M.S. Kovalchuk). The maps "Gold content of Ukraine" and "Rare Metals of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield", and the Atlas "Geology and Mineral Resources of Ukraine" that contains 65 maps (L.S. Galetsky) were compiled. Fundamental direction of modern geology and comparative planetology - the studies of explosive meteorite craters is in a progress. There were predicted and established new ancient craters, as well as related manifestations of natural sorbents and other mineral resources (Ye.P. Gurov).
According to the new developed area of geological research - lithogeodynamic analysis of rock-forming basins – there were defined new patterns of fuel and ore mineral resources forecast (gold, copper, lead, manganese, uranium, etc.) of sedimentary cover of Ukraine and grounded the new concept of oil genesis (deep sedimentary basins hydrogen blowing), which significantly extends the stratigraphic, structural and formational depth ranges of gas and ore-bitume deposits forming (O. Lukin)
The new deposits of mineral waters of a specific composition of "Nafusya" type were discovered and the methods of reduction of radionuclide contamination and recovery of breach of marrow system have been patented. The methods of conservation of mineral waters of the "Nafusya" type were developed and patented. The scheme of radioactive contamination of groundwater of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (CAPS) industrial area and the object "Cover" was constructed. The system of observation wells was created. The scheme of radioactive contamination of groundwater of the right bank part of the “closest zone” of the CAPS was compiled. A risk assessment of radionuclide contamination of Pripjat river was evaluated (V.M. Shestopalov, A.B. Sitnikov, S.P. Dzhepo, A.S. Skalsky, D.O. Bugay, I.P. Onishchenko, Y.F. Rudenko, O.S. Boguslavsky).
Fundamental and applied proceeding of the Institute were covered in numerous books and papers. Annually more than 200 printed pages are submitting for thew publication. Among the publications of the recent years - a series of "Shelf geologu of UkrSSR" in 7 volumes; “Water exchange in hydrogeological structures" in 3 volumes; “Geological history of Ukraine", (1993); “Geology and oil and gas content of the Dnipro-Donets Depression" in 2 volume, (1991); "The Chernobyl catastrophe", (1995), "Oil and gas potential of the Kerch-Taman slope and deep basin of the Black Sea", (1996); "Lithogeodynamic factors of oil and gas accumulation in aulacogenic basins" and others.
The Institute has a good reputation in the country and abroad, that is proved by National and State programs where the Institute acts as the initiator and developer. The programs are as followings: "Oil and Gas of Ukraine up to 2010", "Exploitation of hydrocarbon resources of the Ukrainian Sector in the Black and Azov Seas", "National program of examination and utility of the resources of the Azov-Black Sea Basin and other regions of the World ocean up to 2005", "Ukrainian National program of liquidation the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe and social protection for the period till 2010", "Realization of the estimation control and prediction of the situation in the oil-chemical contamination expansion in the underground waters of Ukraine", "State program of the Antarctic research", etc.. Institute staff if involved in international projects for the International Geological Correlation Program, project UNESCO IGSP, INTAS, CRDF, do joint projects with institutions in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Italy, China, Canada, France, USA etc..
The priorities for the coming years are considered comprehensive research and development strategy for the development of mineral resource base in terms of new economic development, environmental protection and as part of the problem - the development of programs: “Theological basis of ecological security of Ukraine", "Forecast exploitation resources of drinking groundwater of Ukraine (according to their ecological condition)", "Geoecological aspects of monitoring and protection of the marine environment of the Azov-Black Sea basin" and others. Special attention will be paid to complex research connected with the study, forecasting and minimizing of the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe, the monitoring of natural and technological processes and phenomena in the geological environment with the aim to predict and prevent the consequences of dangerous geological processes and phenomena that cause detriment to the national economy and the environment.